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All House Framing EXPLAINED…In Just 12 MINUTES! (House Construction/Framing Members)
Most people know that we call the assembled wooden structure of our houses “FRAMING.” But, most people’s knowledge of framing stops right there. This short video from The Honest Carpenter will explain what every major piece of framing in your house is called, how it works, and when it’s installed!
Nearly every remodel, renovation and addition will involve new framing. And major repairs will also include a great deal of new framing. So it’s very important to understand these terms so you’ll know what your contractor is telling you!
Foundation–This is the bottom level of our houses, typically constructed by masons in the form of brick and block foundations, or poured concrete foundations.
Mud Sill / Sill / Sill Plate–This piece of framing sits directly on the masonry foundation. It is made of treated lumber, so it will resist rot while in contact with damp masonry. It runs the entire perimeter of the house.
Joists–These are the framing members that create our floors and ceilings. They are made of dimensional lumber, like 2x10s, or possibly I-Joists or Floor Trusses. The first level of joists sit directly on the mud sill.
Girders and Beams–These are stronger horizontal structural members that carry the weight of several joists or trusses.
Columns and Posts–These are strong vertical framing members that bear the combined weight of girders and beams, as well as joists, and transfer it to a safe point down in the foundation, or a lower part of the structure. You also see them beneath decks, and porch roofs
Sub-Floor–This is a layer of tongue-and-groove strand board or plywood that lays across the joists, creating a continuous surface to walk on and build more structure upon. It extends right out to the very edge of the structure.
Studs–This is a catch-all term for framing members stood on end to create the vertical structure of our homes. Studs are typically in the 2×4 or 2×6 dimensions. They are staggered 16″ or 24″ center to center.
Plates–These are the horizontal pieces of lumber that studs connect to at their ends. They turn the whole wall into a rigid structure that can be lifted into place. There is usually a single plate at the bottom of the wall, and a double top plate.
Doors and Windows receive special framing, because they create a hollow space in the wall for doors and windows to sit in.
Headers–These are the pieces of wider framing, turned on end and facing outward, that carry the weight over doors and windws.
Jack Stud/Trimmer Stud–These sit directly beneath the ends of the header, supporting it from below.
King Stud–These sit just outside of the header and jack stud, and extend to the top plate.
Cripple Studs–These small framing members fill hollow spaces above door headers, or below windows. They create a continuous wall surface.
Rough Sill/Rough Opening–What we call the entire open space for a door or window to sit in.
Blocking/Nogging–Small horizontal pieces of framing between studs. They may prevent tall walls from bowing, provide a fireblock, or create support from fixtures.
Staircases–These used to be made of notched stringers, but are now often ordered as pre-assembled units.
Rafters–Framing that creates our roof; they act like diagonal joists.
Ridge Board/Ridge Beam–The tall board sandwiched between rafter peaks
Hip Rafter/Valley Rafter–The rafters that create diagonal inside corners or outside corners of a roof.
Rafter Tails–The overhanging ends of the rafters (often tied together with a Sub-Fascia)
Jack Rafters–Extend from the ridge to a hip or valley rafter
Common Rafters–Extend all the way to the Ridge Board.
Trusses–Pre-fabricated units that create the structure and shape of a roof. They are made form shorter, skinner pieces, and pinned together with spiky metal plates.
Sheathing–The plywood or strand board layer that wraps all the framing on the house exterior, creating a wall surface and providing stability.
Thanks for watching!